What causes kidney stones? – Arash Shadman
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What causes kidney stones? – Arash Shadman


The biggest kidney stone on record
weighed more than a kilogram and was 17 centimeters in diameter. The patient didn’t actually
swallow a stone the size of a coconut. Kidney stones form inside the body, but unfortunately, they’re extremely
painful to get out. A kidney stone is a hard mass
of crystals that can form in the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Urine contains compounds
that consist of calcium, sodium, potassium, oxalate, uric acid, and phosphate. If the levels of these particles
get too high, or if urine becomes too acidic
or basic, the particles can clump together
and crystallize. Unless the problem is addressed, the crystals will gradually grow
over a few weeks, months, or even years, forming a detectable stone. Calcium oxalate is the most common
type of crystal to form this way, and accounts for about
80% of kidney stones. Less common kidney stones are made
of calcium phosphate, or uric acid. A slightly different type of stone made of the minerals magnesium
ammonium phosphate, or struvite, can be caused by bacterial infection. And even rarer stones can result
from genetic disorders or certain medications. A kidney stone can go undetected
until it starts to move. When a stone travels
through the kidney and into the ureter, its sharp edges scratch
the walls of the urinary tract. Nerve endings embedded in this tissue
transmit excruciating pain signals through the nervous system. And the scratches can send blood flowing
into the urine. This can be accompanied
by symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and a burning sensation while urinating. If a stone gets big enough
to actually block the flow of urine, it can create an infection,
or back flow, and damage the kidneys themselves. But most kidney stones
don’t become this serious, or even require invasive treatment. Masses less than five millimeters
in diameter will usually pass out
of the body on their own. A doctor will often simply recommend
drinking large amounts of water to help speed the process along, and maybe taking some pain killers. If the stone is slightly larger,
medications like alpha blockers can help by relaxing the muscles
in the ureter and making it easier
for the stone to get through. Another medication called
potassium citrate can help dissolve the stones by creating
a less acidic urine. For medium-sized stones up to about
ten millimeters, one option is pulverizing them
with soundwaves. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
uses high-intensity pulses of focused ultrasonic energy
aimed directly at the stone. The pulses create vibrations inside
the stone itself and small bubbles jostle it. These combined forces crush the stone
into smaller pieces that can pass out of the body more easily. But zapping a stone with sound
doesn’t work as well if it’s simply too big. So sometimes, more invasive
treatments are necessary. A rigid tube called a stent
can be placed in the ureter to expand it. Optical fibers can deliver laser pulses
to break up the stone. Stones can also be surgically removed
through an incision in the patient’s back or groin. What about just avoiding kidney stones
in the first place? For people prone to them, their doctor may recommend
drinking plenty of water, which dilutes the calcium oxalate
and other compounds that eventually build up
into painful stones. Foods like potato chips, spinach, rhubarb, and beets are high in oxalate, so doctors might advise limiting them. Even though calcium
is often found in stones, calcium in foods and beverages
can actually help by binding to oxalate
in the digestive tract before it can be absorbed
and reach the kidneys. If you do end up with a kidney stone,
you’re not alone. Data suggests that rates are rising, but that world record probably
won’t be broken any time soon.

100 thoughts on “What causes kidney stones? – Arash Shadman

  1. A colleague mentioned she had them just last week, so I was curious to try to better understand what she's dealing with. Thank you for this helpful video and explanation.

  2. After watching this, im so scared that im to the point where my side is having very minimal pain. Its just in my head

  3. As a women that has given birth and had passed kidney stones before, i can vouch for and say that KIDNEY PAINS ARE WAYY EXCRUCIATING.
    Just wondering if any men can tell me if being kicked in the nuts or passing kidney stones hurts more?

  4. My mother had a stone somewhere in her body but one day she went into the bathroom to pee and she said that something got out. Then she saw it and saw a stone.

  5. The human body: yeah, i think I’ll have these excruciatingly painful stones build up in the kidneys with no natural way to dissolve them

    Evolution: wait, I could have developed an acid in urine perfect for –

    The human body: shh

  6. AHHHHH just imagine your peeing and then you see this GIANT OF BALL just comes out AHHHH IT'S…….. disturbing 🌈

  7. If you r watching this wondering if you r passing a kidney stone, YOUR NOT! if u were, there would be no question about it!

  8. EVERYONE, you can prevent kidney stones by drinking Chanca Piedra which means "stone breaker" in spanish, its a plant from S. America. It tastes like mud but if you have ever experienced the pain of stones, you will gulp it down. Nothing else worked for me.

  9. دلیل خوب بودن ویدیو
    اینکه۳۳ هزار نفر اوکی دادن
    وفقط ۵۰۰ تا خوششون نیامده

  10. I remember volunteering for the emergency department in Edmonton General Hospital, Canada. There was this person who appears to be in the waiting area for hours after midnight. Nurses are all chatting, eating, not doing anything much. Then he starts to bleed and he was shaking with pain. Only then he was admitted and got to see the doctor right away. There is Canadian health care system for you.

  11. Had a kidney stone when I was 20 which worked itself out after 4 hours. The pain was excruciating. I had broken a few bones and pulled some muscles but nothing came close to the pain I experienced with the passing of the kidney stone.

  12. I have had kidney stones since I was in 6th grade. I am now 29 years old. Its gets easier the older you get due to what i call stretching of the urethra tube. Mine are due to a lack of balance in my body and also certain foods and drinks i have to avoid as well. My biggest I passed was 5mm had to be admitted into the ER. Most pain i have ever felt and i have been shot in the leg and finger in which my finger tip was almost blown off. Its easier if your old enough to just drink beer while passing stone as the beer takes pain away and helps you pee the stone out faster. I had the coolest Urologist and he told my parents when i was 18 to just give me beer it is better than giving me a bottle of pain meds and getting addicted and destroying liver faster than beer would.

  13. I’ve had 3 episodes of passing kidney Stones in my life. The pain was a unbearable that I couldn’t stop vomiting. each episode lasted about 6-12 hours, I just had to wait it out. It’s been years now, and haven’t had another episode because of the increase in water I’m drinking.

  14. Acid and PH is your friend when dissolving stones. Drink lemon juice from freshly squeezed lemons to dissolve CALCIUM ox stones (80% of all stones).

  15. There is also a bacteria called oxalobacter formigenes which breaks down calcium oxalate in the body. But since we take antibiotics this bacteria is killed and never reintroduced into the body. Thus kidney stones form. edit:grammar

  16. Having beer 🍻 always helped me to get stone out of body via urine…
    Yes, I am not lying at all…
    I passed.. i don't even remember.. i think 5 or 6 stones (small, not so big) in last 7 months… from when i started drinking beer regularly like in every week..
    So Don't worry at all. Drink Beer, Enjoy, Stay fit & healthy.. ☺️😊

  17. a nightmare that is very real to men every where i could almost feel the scraping in my urinary tract ughhhh…i need to get on a water diet pronto….. to flush out possibilities

  18. 00:12 who was the poor person that had the biggest kidney stone on record :O humanity should come together to console that person

  19. Well, thank you dear thats help alot to hundrstand the kidneys stone !..
    I had analyses and i found out that i don't have any problem cuz i drink alot of water everyday ..

  20. 500 or 1000 years from now, when kidney stones are a thing of the past due to medical advancement
    "I got this amazing kidney stone on my ring from an ancient humanoid"

  21. Grandfather had kidney transplant because kidney stones and failure, still died during another surgery as kidney stones and failure came ba ck. I will probably suffer from them because family history.

    Help

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